📰 How Diet Increases Bowel Efficiency, Accelerates Obesity

Scientists from UNIGE have discovered that food intake regulates the intestine’s size and ability to absorb calories, highlighting a fundamental mechanism behind obesity.

With more than 10% off world population (World population refers to the number of people living on Earth in one…) Obesity and 40% in overweight (Excess weight is the condition of a person who possesses a thoughtful physique …)Obesity is one of the most important health challenges. However, treatment options remain rare and ineffective. A few years ago, scholars fromUniversity of Geneva (University of Geneva (UNIGE) is the public university of the Canton of Geneva in…) (UNIGE) discovered that a file space (Surface generally refers to the surface layer of an object. The term A…) fromabsorb (In optics, absorption refers to the process by which the energy of a photon is taken…) and functionIntestine (The intestine is a part of the digestive system that extends from the outlet of the stomach to…) Changed under the influence of some external stimuli, such as exposure to the cold (Cold is the opposite sensation of heat associated with low temperatures.).

Sections of mouse intestine. Left, normal bowel circumference (in black) and villi (in pink). Right, bloated intestines after obesity caused by overeating (The purpose of supercharging is to increase the power of a normal gasoline engine or …), with a larger circumference and longer villi. © UNIGE / Mirko Trajkovski

Using various mouse models combined with human intestinal biopsies, scientists are now working to decode the molecular mechanisms that govern this surprising plasticity and show that more food increases the surface area and absorption capacity of the intestine. In question, increased expression of PPARα, a protein (A protein is a biological macromolecule consisting of one or more…) A regulator that has been shown to be essential to the mechanism of increased caloric absorption resulting from overeating. Also, if large amounts of food increase the area of ​​intestinal absorption, restricting food can reverse the process and return it to a near normal level. This phenomenon has also been reproduced using pharmacological and genetic techniques, suggesting strategies that can limit obesity. The results are to be found in the journal Nature Communications.

Hundreds of millions of adults and children in Globalism (The word can mean world 🙂 Clinically obese, a the disease (A disease is a change in the functions or health of an organism, an animal …) They are closely related to major causes of death, such as heart disease or stroke. Obesity mainly results from an imbalance between energy expenditure and calorie absorption. Indeed, in the intestine, food that was previously broken down is absorbed by pass (The genus Passer was created by the French zoologist Mathurin Jacques…) In the Blood circulation (The circulatory system is a type of closed circulatory system that ensures …) To be distributed in everyone (All is understood as all that exists most often as the world or …) the body. To absorb enough calories, the intestinal wall is covered in millions of convolutions called villi and microvilli which, when positioned end to end, will cover the surface of a football field.

Impressive and fast effect

Remembers Mirko Trajkovsky, professor in the department Physiology (Physiology (from Greek φύσις, phosis, nature, and …) cellular and metabolism (Metabolism is the set of molecular and energy transformations…) And in the middle diabetic (Diabetes has many forms, and they all have copious urine…) from college Medicine (Medicine (from the Latin medix, “that heals”) is science and …) from UNIGE, the lead author of this work. So we wanted to understand how this amazing intestinal plasticity is caused.

Using various mouse models and human intestinal biopsies – artificial 3D structures – the team Research (Scientific research refers, first of all, to all actions taken with a view to …) I found that Quantity (Quantity is a general term in metrology (number, quantity); scalar, …) of food consumed was actually the main regulator of height (The length of an object is the distance between the two most…) from the intestine. “We observed a relatively rapid and physiologically impressive response to increased food intake: the intestine subsequently lengthened by more than 30%, and was associated with a significant growth in the size of villi and microvilli,” adds Mirko Trajkowski. . “It allowed the intestines to develop a greater capacity to absorb calories.” In addition, these changes can be reversed: when the amount of food decreases, the length and shape of the intestines return to almost normal.

The protein PPARα controls plasticity

The expansion of the intestine is a mechanism that consumes a lot of energy; Thus, UNIGE scientists noted that the increase in the intestinal absorption surface drives this member (An organ is a group of tissues that contribute to the performance of a function …) Various metabolic pathways (the steps by which cells convert food into energy). While several pathways that contribute to the intestinal expansion process have been identified, one of them, the PPARα pathway, has been shown to be highly essential. Indeed, the PPARα protein appears to control both the increase in villi length and caloric absorption capacity. It raises the level of another protein called PLIN2, which by promoting the formation of droplets of Fats (Fat are the fats of living things. They are molecules…) In the cells of the intestine, it promotes the absorption of fats. By disrupting PPARα in the gut of mice, the scientists were able to confirm this mechanism. “Deletion of PPARα in the gut, or its pharmacological inhibition, actually leads to Cleaning (Nette is a generic name attributed in French to several species…) Decreased intestinal absorption capacity, and helped reverse buildup fat (Fat is a fatty substance that occurs in a solid state at temperature…) and obesity caused by a high-calorie diet,” adds Mirko Trajkovsky.

This unexpected plasticity of the intestine, which allows it to shrink or expand its surface and villi, could constitute an interesting alternative to gastric bypass or other irreversible interventions aimed at reducing overweight (Weight gain is a change in body mass that results in an increase…) and complications of obesity. PPARα game (The cheek is the part that covers and closes the oral cavity of the face…) But it plays a key role in many metabolic functions, and is expressed in many tissues. Before presenting our findings to patients, we will therefore have to find a way to inhibit this protein only in the gut without to touch (Touch, also called tact or touch, is one of the five senses of a human or animal, …) to other devices,” the authors concluded.

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